One surefire way to start a debate is to make any statement about artificial sweeteners, whether it be in favor of or opposed to them. Let's take a moment to set aside our feelings on the matter and objectively look at the facts on some of the health claims made against artificial sweeteners. In the last article, we looked at whether or not they make you fat, which you can read here. Today we will investigate another claim against artificial sweeteners.
(I am neither a registered dietitian nor a medical doctor. This should not be taken as dietary or medical advice. I am merely reading, interpreting, and summarizing the research for you.)
SOME SAY ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS CAUSE DIABETES BUT IS IT TRUE?
Study: The effects of water and non‐nutritive sweetened beverages on weight loss and weight maintenance: A randomized clinical trial 
The first study I want to talk about is actually a study we looked at last week. The study conducted a one year weight loss treatment program that consisted of a 12 week weight loss phase followed by a 40 week weight maintenance phase. Additionally, groups were told to drink 24 oz of either water or diet soda daily for the entire year.
"In the present study there was no change in fasting blood glucose after 52 weeks of NNS consumption. There were also no between group differences in fasting blood glucose and values were in the clinically normal range for both treatment groups." I will note that this study looked specifically at overweight and obese individuals who were regular non-nutritive sweetened beverage users and were taking part in a formal weight loss program so these results may not represent the normal weight non-dieting population.
Study: Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels 
Participants were given a snack of tea, crackers, and cream cheese sweetened with either stevia, aspartame, or sucrose (table sugar). 20 minutes later they ate a buffet style lunch where participants chose their own foods and amounts. Blood samples were taken before the snack, 20 minutes post snack, 20 minutes post lunch, 60 minutes post lunch, and 120 minutes post lunch.
Consumption of stevia in preload (20m before lunch) snack significantly lowered postprandial (post lunch) insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose, as well as post lunch glucose levels compared to sucrose. Consumption of aspartame in preloaded snacks also reduced post lunch glucose compared to sucrose at twenty minutes following consumption of the preload snack.
Aspartame: A Safety Evaluation Based on Current Use Levels, Regulations, and Toxicological and Epidemiological Studies 
This is a review that cites a whopping 149 studies. (Did I happen to mention aspartame is one of the most extensively researched compounds on the planet?) This review states that aspartame consumption, even at levels much higher than that expected under typical circumstances, has virtually no impact on levels of blood constituents such as glucose. Just to make this clear, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for aspartame is 50mg/kg of body weight/day. This translates to 35 Diet Cokes per day for the average American male and 30 for the average American woman. Needless to say, you'd see health complications due to the sheer amount of cola way before seeing the effects of the aspartame itself.
Artificial sweeteners on the whole seem to be safe in regards to affecting your risk of diabetes. One could make the claim that they are actually beneficial in this regard because they can potentially help you lose weight which in turn would decrease your risk of diabetes.
That's all for this time guys. Join me next week for parts three and four on the safety of artificial sweeteners. God bless you AND your family and I'll see you next week!
 Peters, J. C., Beck, J., Cardel, M., Wyatt, H. R., Foster, G. D., Pan, Z., … Hill, J. O. (2016). The effects of water and non‐nutritive sweetened beverages on weight loss and weight maintenance: A randomized clinical trial. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 24(2), 297–304. http://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21327
 Anton, S. D., Martin, C. K., Han, H., Coulon, S., Cefalu, W. T., Geiselman, P., & Williamson, D. A. (2010). Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Appetite, 55(1), 37–43. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2010.03.009
 Magnuson, B. A., Burdock, G., Doull, J., ... Williams, G. (2007). Aspartame: A Safety Evaluation Based on Current Use Levels, Regulations, and Toxicological and Epidemiological Studies. DOI: 10.1080/10408440701516184